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Religious tension within the Western world soon inflamed all the other ethnic, economic, and social issues that had been simmering in the post-Medieval period.Social order broke down as communities were unable to cope with the splintering polity.
When Ferdinand started implementing policies discriminating against the Protestants, the estates protested, but Ferdinand decided to dissolve their assembly.
In reaction to this, a Protestant mob gathered in Prague, forced itself into the castle where the imperial representatives were staying, and threw them out a third-story window.
Four hundred years later, the Defenestration of Prague is recognized as the beginning of a culminating event which ended one international order and created another.
This order was shaped by those who had lived through the conflict and recognized the practical need to establish a new system to end the chaos and destruction caused following the breakdown of Christendom.
In Germany, the war’s primary battleground, one-third of the population lay dead, and the population level did not return to its pre-war numbers until the 1800s.
The political system that had governed Western Europe before the Reformation also died.
It was accepted that a Christian sovereign should defend the true religion, promote peace, and rule justly.
These objectives quickly came into conflict once the Protestant Reformation created religious pluralism, and especially when one side rejected the very authority which held the whole political system together.
From 1517 until 1618, Europe was thrown into chaos as revolts, civil wars, and national conflicts flared across Europe.
Many attempted to bring about a social-religious settlement by either force or negotiation, but no universal solution had been found by 1618.