Finally, a last technique is the simple denial of benefits. Ink tags, used in resale, follow a similar objective: if tampered with, they release irremovable ink on the clothing, denying to the shoplifters the opportunity of wearing or selling the stolen article. The fifth category focuses on the fact that most offenders try to rationalize their acts by neutralizing the outcomes and thus seeks to remove such ability to make excuses.
This category looks at the emotional side of crime - by reducing provocations, people will be less likely to engage in crime. It can be achieved through the following five techniques.
Efforts taken to increase the effort are the most basic ones.
They start with target-hardening, which is accomplished using physical barriers such as locks, anti-robbery screens, and tamper-proof packaging.
It is likely that with time and new technologies becoming available to researchers, the list will keep on expanding.
The latest classification of the twenty-five techniques of situational prevention aims to reduce opportunities and is categorized under five areas.
The concept of situational crime started to gain recognition in the late 1940s when Edwin Sutherland (1947) argued that crime was either “historical” – influenced by previous personal history, or “situational” – the environmental factors encompassing the crime scene.
Although acknowledged by the majority of criminologists, the concept of “situation” was not their primary focus and remained ignored up until the 1970s when it regained interest.
Although concealing targets is helpful, some go to the extent of removing them to prevent robberies of bus drivers for instance, exact fare regulations and safes were introduced in the buses.
Registering property identification, done through vehicle licensing and property marking for instance, also reduce thieves’ incentives.