There are three main theory categories, namely content theories, process theories and contemporary theories (Saif, Nawaz, Jan & Khan, 2012).
Generally speaking, these theories include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene (or two-factor) theory, Alderfer’s Existence, Relatedness and Growth theory, and Mc Clelland’s needs theory.
In extrinsic motivation, the factors (hygiene’s) that satisfy lower-level needs are different from those (motivators) that satisfy or partially satisfy higher–level needs.
If hygiene factors (factors outside the job itself, such as working conditions, salary and incentive pay) are inadequate, employees become dissatisfied.
Based on the basic physical, biological, social and psychological needs of human beings, Maslow came up with a five-stage theory that places the needs of the individual in different categories and prioritizes their attainment.
These categories, in order of decreasing priority, are: • physiological needs (food, shelter, clothing); • safety and security needs (physical protection); • social needs (association with others); • esteem needs (receiving acknowledgement from others); and • self-actualisation needs (the desire for accomplishment or to leave behind a legacy).Rewards as the main factor of motivation can also encourage retention within the organization, and the broader employment relationship and social exchange are significant.Motivation’s whole idea is to provide employees with sureties of job security, nice working condition, loyalty and belonging to the enterprise, as well as the workforce given some challenges.Besides the basic needs for food, shelter and clothing, safety from physical, harm, and social interaction, they also need the recognition and appreciation of students, colleagues, and parents.Herzberg’s Two-factor theory, also known as Motivator-Hygiene, emanated from a study conducted among accounts and engineers to determine what makes an individual feel good or bad about their job (Saif et al., 2012).The theories of motivation maybe categorized according to their definitions and purpose but critical analysis reveal that they are all linked, they lead to serving satisfaction in employees.The use of both content and process theories must be put into practice to motivate employees effectively.Abstract: The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the theories of motivation and how they are used to inspire employees to develop the drive to achieve.The importance of motivation in organizations and job satisfaction is vital for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives.Good marks in reviews may reflect that an employee is satisfied and bad marks may reflect the opposite.In every employee, motivation maybe because outside factors (extrinsic) such as rewards or within an individual (intrinsic), desire to do better.