The Civil Rights Movement Essay

The Civil Rights Movement Essay-13
In no uncertain terms, the court required that representation in federal and state legislatures be based substantially on population. Carr upheld lawsuits that challenged districts apportioned to enforce voting discrimination against minorities. Sanders invalidated Georgia’s county unit voting system, giving rise to the concept “one man, one vote.” Two decisions in 1964, Wesberry v. In Reynolds the Supreme Court solidified the “one man, one vote” concept in an 8 to 1 decision that expressly linked the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause to the guarantee that each citizen had equal weight in the election of state legislators.

In no uncertain terms, the court required that representation in federal and state legislatures be based substantially on population. Carr upheld lawsuits that challenged districts apportioned to enforce voting discrimination against minorities. Sanders invalidated Georgia’s county unit voting system, giving rise to the concept “one man, one vote.” Two decisions in 1964, Wesberry v. In Reynolds the Supreme Court solidified the “one man, one vote” concept in an 8 to 1 decision that expressly linked the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause to the guarantee that each citizen had equal weight in the election of state legislators.Howard Smith of Virginia, chairman of the House Rules Committee, routinely used his influential position to thwart civil rights legislation.Southerners continued to exert nearly untrammeled influence as committee chairmen—coinciding with the apex of committee power in Congress—in an era when Democrats controlled the House almost exclusively.

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During the period from the end of World War II until the late 1960s, often referred to as America’s “Second Reconstruction,” the nation began to correct civil and human rights abuses that had lingered in American society for a century.

A grassroots civil rights movement coupled with gradual but progressive actions by Presidents, the federal courts, and Congress eventually provided more complete political rights for African Americans and began to redress longstanding economic and social inequities.

As an NAACP activist in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks famously refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a public bus in 1955. On the House Floor, a group of progressive liberals and moderate Republicans, including Celler, Clifford Case of New Jersey, Jacob Javits of New York, Hugh D.

Scott of Pennsylvania, Frances Bolton of Ohio, and Helen Gahagan Douglas, emerged as civil rights advocates.

Yet while they were determined, energetic, and impassioned, there were too few African Americans in Congress to drive a policy agenda. Black Members had different legislative styles, different personalities, and disagreed as to the best method to achieve civil rights advances.

Some followed the party line while others took their cues from activists outside Congress.

“In the field of public education, separate but equal has no place,” the Justices declared.

Then, in the early 1960s, the Supreme Court rendered a string of decisions known as the “reapportionment cases” that fundamentally changed the voting landscape for African Americans. The court nullified Georgia’s unequal congressional districts in Wesberry while validating the Fourteenth Amendment’s provision for equal representation for equal numbers of people in each district.

To serve as his Attorney General, he appointed Herbert Brownell, a progressive to whom he gave wide discretion.

Eisenhower also appointed California Governor Earl Warren as Chief Justice of the U. Supreme Court in 1953, preparing the way for a series of landmark civil rights cases decided by the liberal Warren court.

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