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Thus rubrics are as good or bad as the criteria selected and the descriptions of the levels of performance under each.
I think I know why that might be and will explain that in Chapter 2, but for now let's start with the positive.
It should be clear from the definition that rubrics have two major aspects: coherent sets of criteria and descriptions of levels of performance for these criteria.
For now, know that the purpose of the list in Figure 1.1 is to describe some of these performances, so you can recognize them as performances and as suitable for using rubrics, when they are appropriate indicators of your goals for student learning.
About the only kinds of schoolwork that do not function well with rubrics are questions with right or wrong answers.
In this book, I will show that rubrics for classroom use are both more and less than the dictionary definition suggests.
They are more because rubrics are good for much more than just grading or scoring.
State standards, curriculum goals, and instructional goals and objectives are the sources for what types of performances your students should be able to do.
When the intended learning outcomes are best indicated by performances—things students would do, make, say, or write—then rubrics are the best way to assess them.
The other is whether the rubric is general and could be used with a family of similar tasks or is task-specific and only applicable to one assessment. Analytic rubrics describe work on each criterion separately.
Figure 1.2 describes the different types of rubrics and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Nitko, 2008, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Holistic rubrics describe the work by applying all the criteria at the same time and enabling an overall judgment about the quality of the work.