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They have been friends and supported each other in time of war as well as peace.
(Ahmad, 2005) During the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 Muslims showed a good gesture; during the observation of the prayers in the mosques of Calcutta funds were accumulated for the injured soldiers of Turkish troops. One school of thought held that the Muslims owed their allegiance and loyalty to the Sultan of Turkey, because he was the caliph of Islam, while the other group instead that Muslims should not annoy and alienate the British by supporting their adversary.
All succeeding events and movements in Turkey got the same positive response in India. Besides they thought that the Muslims, like all other Indians, owed their allegiance to the British Rulers.
Having been double encouraged, they began their invasion in 1911.
This led to war between Italy and Turkey and touched off the Balkan wars of1912-13, which in turn merged with World War 1 (Ali, 2001).
The institutions of Khilafat have occupied a very important place in the history of Islamic peoples.
After the sack of Baghdad in 1258 AD the Khilafat passed into the hands of Fatimid rulers of Egypt and finally into those of the Ottoman Sultans in the first half of the sixteen century.In the result of these burning feelings Khilafat Movement was launched in India to preserve the Turkish Khilafat.(Burke, 1973) During Caliphate (Khilafat) Movement Prominent Leaders of great repute like Molana Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Abul Kalam Azad, and Shibli Numani condemned in unequivocal terms the brutalities perpetrated on the Turks by the aggressors.On the other side the Agha Khan ( president of All India Muslim League) and Syed Ameer Ali (president of the London branch of the Muslim League) respectively, they made honest appeals to the British Government to save Turkey from total disintegration.Henceforth, the plight of Turkey remained the main cause of anxiety for the Muslims of south Asia and they tried to give Turkey all possible help.The effect of the World War 1, in which the Ottomans found themselves on the side of the central powers, was the final integration of the Turkish Empire and the division of its territories as spoils of war between the victors-the British and the French.Thus All India Muslim League passed a resolution and condemning the outrageous conduct of Shrief Hussain.The Muslims of British India gave enthusiastic support to the Turks (Ahmad, 2005).Those campaigns of the Khilafat Movement at least succeed to collect huge funds for the support of Turks (Ali, 2001).The plight of the Turks distressed the Indian Muslims deeply.Nothing less than forty thousand Muslims were sent to jail, several lawyers boycotted the law courts, hundreds of students gave up their studies, hundreds resigned from the government services and over a thousand people were killed in Malabar (Ahmad, 2005). At that time the Muslims leaders were once again met at Delhi (India) and decided to send a telegram for Sultan of Turkey not to join the war.However, on 4 November 1914, Turkey joined Germany in the war against the Allies.