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The study comprised an exploration of maths and physics questions from past GCSE examinations, which were marked in an experimental setting by groups of markers and yielded differing marking accuracies.The questions also varied in their difficulty for GCSE candidates, and in the cognitive strategies needed to mark them.The conclusion is that, contrary to common belief, personal ethics mean little when pitted against authority.
Can people be ordered to act against their moral convictions?
The experiment will test whether a person can keep administering painful electric shocks to another person just because they are ordered to do so.
The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way up to 450 volts.
The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were.
Our experiment tested people's obedience to authority.
The results showed that most obey all orders given by the authority-figure, despite their unwillingness.Once the 300-volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released.Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions.Procedures The participant met another "participant" in the waiting room before the experiment. Each participant got the role as a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the actor ("learner") every time an incorrect answer to a question was produced.The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner. As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition.Such features could potentially contribute to a broad rationale for designating questions to markers according to personal expertise.The aim of this study was to identify question features that can distinguish those questions that are marked highly accurately from those that are marked less accurately.Kelly's Repertory Grid technique and semi-structured interview schedules were used in meetings with highly experienced principal examiners, who had led the experimental marking of the questions.The data generated comprised ratings for each question on a number of question features (constructs).Its format now includes shorter papers and review articles.Research Papers in Education is not only a vital source of pertinent information for educational researchers,but also required reading for educational policy-makers and planners.