Most of the papers were published from 2010 to 2015 which the recent research papers on cooperative multi-agent systems have been reviewed.The main contributions of this paper are (i) the most reflected and affected key elements and current issues in cooperative mobile robots and (ii) directions and future challenges for the multi-agents robot, with recommendations and related suggestions.The benefits received from information sharing among agents, data fusion, distribution of task, time and energy consumption have made the multi-agents research still relevant until present.
The applications and critical survey of the issues and direction of cooperative robots based on existing motivation have been indicated.
Besides that, there were also a survey and an analysis of multi-robot coordination proposed by Yan et al.
The most challenging part was to provide a robust and intelligent control system so that the agents can communicate and coordinate among them to complete the task.
Hence, it has been found that designing the control architecture, communication, and planning system were the major issues discussed and solved among researchers.
Related problems such as communication mechanism, a planning strategy, and a decision-making structure have been reviewed.
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In addition, various additional issues of cooperative MARS have been highlighted in these reviewed papers.
As a result, we can summarize that the selection of a homogeneous or heterogeneous agent depends on the research application.
Since the capability of heterogeneous agents is not identical, it becomes a challenging issue especially in finding consensus among agent during execution of the task.
There were two main reviewed papers proposed by Cao and Zhi Yan which were related to cooperative multi-agent research.  proposed a paper that represents the antecedents and direction of the cooperative mobile robot in the mid-1990s (most of the reviewed papers were published from 1990 to 1995).
There were several issues discussed such as group architecture, resource conflict, the origin of cooperation, learning, and geometric problem.