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concluded that human influences had contributed to an increase in heavy precipitation events at the global scale.
"Attribution" of causes of climate change is the process of establishing the most likely causes for the detected change with some defined level of confidence.
The graph above shows the average of a set of temperature simulations for the 20th century (black line), followed by projected temperatures for the 21st century based on three greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (colored lines).
The IPCC's Fifth Report released in 2014 states that relative to the average from year 1850 to 1900, global surface temperature change by the end of the 21st century is likely to exceed 1.5°C and may well exceed 2°C. Even if emissions were drastically reduced overnight, the warming process is irreversible because CO2 takes hundreds of years to break down, and global temperatures will remain close to their highest level for at least the next 1,000 years (see the later section on irreversibilities).
Global surface temperature for the past 5.3 million years as inferred from cores of ocean sediments taken all around the global ocean.
Evidence of global warming is shown in the graphs (below right) from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Some of the graphs show a positive trend, e.g., increasing temperature over land and the ocean, and sea level rise.
The range in temperature projections partly reflects the choice of emissions scenario, and the degree of the "climate sensitivity".
Different scenarios involve varying assumptions about future social and economic impact (e.g., economic growth, population level, energy policies), which in turn affects projections of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
This article discusses the potential impact of climate change depending on different levels of future global warming.
This way of describing impacts has been used in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Reports on climate change.