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"For example, had I included an engineering job, I would have had to include a specific engineering resume," she said.
She selected jobs precisely because they were associated mostly with one sex or the other, then sat back to see which of her applications generated calls for an interview.
"One of the biggest findings is that discrimination during early hiring practices is really concentrated among working-class jobs in male-dominated fields," said Yavorsky, an assistant professor at University of North Carolina Charlotte.
She also said men's wages tend to rise more than women's.
The CCF briefing paper is published along with an interview with Coontz by Virginia Rutter, a professor at Framingham State University in Massachusetts.
"This is important because we've seen the least amount of integration progress among working-class people.
The jobs there are as segregated as they were in the 1960s," she said.
– Stephanie Coontz, the Council on Contemporary Families director of research Women were called back for the "female" middle-class jobs 52 percent more often than men and for "female" working-class jobs 21 percent more often.
The number of female callbacks was even higher when the ads for those jobs specified friendliness and customer service.
They can use less-gendered language in their ads "that may subconsciously steer them to select particular genders for the job." They need to think about how their biases may influence their hiring-related decisions, even unconsciously, she noted.
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