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For instance, you may not need to cite a reference to Piaget’s developmental stages in a paper for an education class or give a source for your description of a commonly used method in a biology report—but you must be sure that this information is so widely known within that field that it will be shared by your readers. And in the case of both general and field-specific common knowledge, if you use the exact words of the reference source, you must use quotation marks and credit the source.In general, use direct quotations only if you have a good reason. Also, it’s often conventional to quote more extensively from sources when you’re writing a humanities paper, and to summarize from sources when you’re writing in the social or natural sciences–but there are always exceptions.
Field-specific common knowledge is “common” only within a particular field or specialty.
It may include facts, theories, or methods that are familiar to readers within that discipline.
Ideas: An author’s ideas may include not only points made and conclusions drawn, but, for instance, a specific method or theory, the arrangement of material, or a list of steps in a process or characteristics of a medical condition.
If a source provided any of these, you need to acknowledge the source.
The clinical nurse specialist in this unit is mostly involved with formal teaching in orienting new staff. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care.
The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist are the designated experts. The resource nurse is seen as both a caregiver and a resource to other caregivers. The staff nurses, in contrast, This paraphrase is a patchwork composed of pieces in the original author’s language (in red) and pieces in the student-writer’s words, all rearranged into a new pattern, but with none of the borrowed pieces in quotation marks.Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles.In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. Staff nurses are assigned to patients to provide all their nursing care. 156) Notice that the writer has not only “borrowed” Chase’s material (the results of her research) with no acknowledgment, but has also largely maintained the author’s method of expression and sentence structure.You do not need to cite a source for material considered common knowledge: General common knowledge is factual information considered to be in the public domain, such as birth and death dates of well-known figures, and generally accepted dates of military, political, literary, and other historical events.In general, factual information contained in multiple standard reference works can usually be considered to be in the public domain.The paragraphs below provide an example by showing a passage as it appears in the source, two paraphrases that follow the source too closely, and a legitimate paraphrase.The student’s intention was to incorporate the material in the original passage into a section of a paper on the concept of “experts” that compared the functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions.If all these phrases were in red, the paraphrase would look much like the “patchwork” example.The difference is that the phrases in the legitimate paraphrase are all precise, economical, and conventional designations that are part of the shared language within the nursing discipline (in the too-close paraphrases, they’re red only when used within a longer borrowed phrase).This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. They are the most experienced of all the staff nurses. And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.The nurse clinician has a separate job description and provides for quality of care by orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and providing direct support where needed, such as assisting in emergency situations. at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.