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Calculations are based on different sheet sizes, because paper mills produce the larger-size sheets and then ship them to converters, who cut the sheets to standard letter or legal sizes.A proposed international standard unit for basis weight is called grammage, which is grams per square meter; this international standard unit is not widely used in the U. Bedding: Site-preparation technique in which soil is raised from a few inches to a few feet high to provide an elevated planting or seed bed; used primarily in wet areas to improve drainage and aeration for seeding.
May include some offset grades such as offset business forms and envelopes.
Cable logging: System of transporting logs from stump to landing by means of steel cables and winch.
Best Management Practices or BMPs: In this report, forestry practices specified in state-level forest management guidelines or legislation.
BMPs encompass the practices required by the mandatory forest practice acts in some states as well as the voluntary or quasi-regulatory BMP programs in other states.
A stronger and brighter version of CTMP is bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp (BCTMP). Environmental Protection Agency the authority to regulate discharges of pollutants from all sources into waters of the United States. In practice, most clearcuts are commercial clearcuts.
Chemical oxygen demand (COD): Amount of oxidizable compounds (composed of carbon and hydrogen) present in the water. The purpose of the statute is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Coarse woody debris: Also called large woody debris.Brightness measurements compare paper and pulp with a reference standard (measured on a scale of 1 to 100 where 100 represents the reflectance of magnesium oxide).Bleached kraft pulps range in brightness from the low 80s to over 90. Business papers: Office papers such as reprographic paper, letterhead, and envelopes designed to run in copiers and laser and ink-jet printers.The major force behind the conversion from acid to alkaline papermaking is the greater strength of the alkaline sheet, which permits higher levels of clay and calcium carbonate filler.Additionally, maintenance costs for alkaline papermaking are less because such systems are less prone to corrosion, and are more easily closed than acid systems. (1) Chemical release agent, used when pure fiber furnish is run at low basis weight to prevent sticking to the paper machine presses.For regulatory purposes, BOD is most often measured over a five-day period in the United States.The BOD in a test bottle can consume oxygen well in excess of 100 days, and the five-day test may capture only 50-75% of the total BOD.The oxygen in chlorine dioxide initially reacts with lignin. Environmental Protection Agency the authority to regulate emissions of air pollutants from all sources in the United States. In natural forests of some regions (e.g., the Pacific Northwest), coarse woody debris on the forest floor also provides important functions as it slowly decays, returning nutrients to the soil, storing water for use in dry periods, and providing animal habitat. Coated groundwood: Coated papers containing more than 10% mechanical pulp (mostly stone groundwood and/or refiner).This initial reaction produces substances that can chlorinate the remaining organic material. The purpose of the statute is to protect and enhance the quality of the nation’s air resources. Coarse woody debris develops naturally in unmanaged forests, as trees die and decay, and may also be created by forest management (see also Logging debris). Coated groundwood papers also contain softwood bleached kraft pulp to minimize breaks in the printing press.Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): Amount of oxygen required by aerobic (oxygen-requiring) organisms to carry out normal oxidative metabolism or the amount required by oxidation of metabolic by-product from anaerobic organisms in water containing organic matter.Thus, BOD measures the amount of dissolved organic material that is degraded naturally once it enters a mill’s receiving waters.