Problem Solving Method Definition

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A simple model of science is PHEOC (Problem, Hypothesis, Experiment, Observe, Conclude).

When PHEOC, or a similar model, is presented — or is misinterpreted — as a rigid sequence of fixed steps, this can lead to misunderstandings of science, because the real-world process of science is flexible.

Here are some models that can help students understand and do the process of science.

We'll begin with simplicity, before moving on to models that are more complex so they can describe the process more completely-and-accurately.

Visual Logic: We can think logically in a variety of ways; useful tools for VISUAL THINKING include visually logical organizing techniques — concept maps, matrices and diagrams (cluster, hierarchical, webbing, Venn,...), flowcharts,...

— YES, because expert scientists (and designers) tend to be more effective when they use flexible strategies — analogous to the flexible goal-directed improvising of a hockey player, but not the rigid choreography of a figure skater — to stimulate & coordinate their thinking-and-actions in productive ways, so they can solve problems more effectively.They compare these models to show their similarities & differences.And they explain how both models describe a flexible process even though each model-framework has steps.) discovered functional connections between 3 Elements — PREDICTIONS (made by imagining in a Mental Experiment) and OBSERVATIONS (made by actualizing in a Physical Experiment) and GOALS (for a satisfactory Problem-Solution) — when they are used in 3 Comparisons: one Comparison is an evaluative REALITY CHECK; two Comparisons are evaluative QUALITY CHECKS.Two Kinds of Design: This diagram distinguishes between Science-Design (usually it's just called Science, and is done mainly by using Reality Checks) and General Design (which includes Engineering & much more, and is done mainly by using Quality Checks) because this distinction is useful, because thinking about these two kinds of design helps us understand the problem-solving process we use for Science-Design and General Design and .Two Useful Perspectives: We can think about separation (into Science and Design, above) AND integration (for Science-and-Design, below): Above, Science Buddies has separate models for Science, and for Design.Below is one model that includes both together, with an integration of...These tools are selected according to the needs of the task and are either divergent (i.e., used to generate options) or convergent (i.e., used to evaluate options)." People solve problems (to "make it better") in all areas of life.When we're solving a wide variety of problems, we can think productively in a variety of ways, as described in a theory of MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES developed by Howard Gardner.While we're trying to help students improve a wide variety of abilities, we can develop teaching strategies that will be effective for students with different LEARNING STYLES.For example, we can help students understand-and-use...


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