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Therefore, the focus of this paper is on providing the big picture, analyzing all mechanisms quantitatively and comparing the resulting bonding energy to measured data.In all experiments, we used an industrial unbleached softwood Kraft pulp (Mondi Frantschach, Austria).For a given sheet, one of these two is the factor limiting the material strength, as described by the Page equation, e.g.
This bonding is fully reversible, which makes paper an easily recyclable material.
Upon immersion in water with concomitant stirring, paper disintegrates into its component fibers, the resulting suspension can be reused in the papermaking process.
Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding.
Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds.
Currently, the majority of industrial pulp fibers are manufactured from wood.
The process of papermaking has remained basically intact since its beginning.
The pulp was a mixture from spruce and pine (mass ratio about 80/20).
It had been cooked to a Kappa number of 42, and it was once dried and unbeaten. hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces and Coulomb forces, only become relevant if molecular contact - a distance closer than ~300 Å - is established.
The fibers in paper bond to each other by six different mechanisms: interdiffusion, mechanical interlocking, capillary forces, Coulomb forces, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces.
Reviews on fiber-fiber bonding and its mechanisms are given by numerous authors. paper, depends on the strength of these component fibers and the strength of the bond between these fibers.