Medicare Drug Plan D Research Paper Apa Style

Medicare Drug Plan D Research Paper Apa Style-33
Studies before Part D have found both effects, that is, total drug spending and adherence decrease for both discretionary and necessary drugs, while out-of-pocket expenditures increase (Tseng et al. How the Part D coverage gap affects drug spending and adherence depends in part on which and how many beneficiaries enter the gap, when during the year this occurs, and how beneficiaries respond. There also is uncertainty about how much of a drug use barrier Part D cost-sharing creates, with some suggesting eliminating the Part D coverage gap entirely or at least providing generic drug coverage during the standard gap period (H. The number of plans offering generic-only gap coverage has increased from 23 percent of MAPDs in 2006 to 34 percent in 2008, and from 13 percent of PDPs in 2006 to 29 percent in 2008 (Medicare Payment Advisory Commission 2006, 2008). The effect of the Part D program on adherence is controversial, and it depends in large part on the reference point (Zhang et al. While beneficiaries may face potentially substantial cost-sharing levels under Part D, including the coverage gap, many previously did not have coverage or had less generous coverage before the introduction of Part D. Other studies, however, indicate that many beneficiaries experience cost-related nonadherence, especially among beneficiaries who enter the coverage gap (Neuman et al. These plans provide more generous coverage during the standard gap period to attract beneficiaries, often in exchange for higher premiums. A recent industry report estimated that 33 percent of MAPD and 43 percent of PDP beneficiaries with diabetes reached the gap in 2006 (Karaca et al. METHODS Setting The integrated, staff-model HMO offered a single MAPD plan for individual subscribers, with a coverage gap between U. The network-model HMO offered two MAPD plans in 2006: one with a coverage gap as described above, and one with generic-only coverage during the gap. S. for preferred brands, 50 percent coinsurance for nonpreferred brands, and 33 percent coinsurance for specialty drugs. Beneficiaries with the standard coverage gap in 2006 were most commonly enrolled in MA plans with no or limited (e.g., capped) brand-name drug coverage in 2005; the majority of beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage in 2006 had unrestricted generic and brand coverage in 2006.

Studies before Part D have found both effects, that is, total drug spending and adherence decrease for both discretionary and necessary drugs, while out-of-pocket expenditures increase (Tseng et al. How the Part D coverage gap affects drug spending and adherence depends in part on which and how many beneficiaries enter the gap, when during the year this occurs, and how beneficiaries respond. There also is uncertainty about how much of a drug use barrier Part D cost-sharing creates, with some suggesting eliminating the Part D coverage gap entirely or at least providing generic drug coverage during the standard gap period (H. The number of plans offering generic-only gap coverage has increased from 23 percent of MAPDs in 2006 to 34 percent in 2008, and from 13 percent of PDPs in 2006 to 29 percent in 2008 (Medicare Payment Advisory Commission 2006, 2008). The effect of the Part D program on adherence is controversial, and it depends in large part on the reference point (Zhang et al. While beneficiaries may face potentially substantial cost-sharing levels under Part D, including the coverage gap, many previously did not have coverage or had less generous coverage before the introduction of Part D. Other studies, however, indicate that many beneficiaries experience cost-related nonadherence, especially among beneficiaries who enter the coverage gap (Neuman et al. These plans provide more generous coverage during the standard gap period to attract beneficiaries, often in exchange for higher premiums. A recent industry report estimated that 33 percent of MAPD and 43 percent of PDP beneficiaries with diabetes reached the gap in 2006 (Karaca et al. METHODS Setting The integrated, staff-model HMO offered a single MAPD plan for individual subscribers, with a coverage gap between U. The network-model HMO offered two MAPD plans in 2006: one with a coverage gap as described above, and one with generic-only coverage during the gap. S. for preferred brands, 50 percent coinsurance for nonpreferred brands, and 33 percent coinsurance for specialty drugs. Beneficiaries with the standard coverage gap in 2006 were most commonly enrolled in MA plans with no or limited (e.g., capped) brand-name drug coverage in 2005; the majority of beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage in 2006 had unrestricted generic and brand coverage in 2006.

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Retrieved from or doi:0000000/000000000000 or Example Food and Agriculture Organization. Promises and challenges of the informal food sector in developing countries [PDF file].

Medicare Part D outpatient prescription drug benefits were introduced in 2006 with the goal of improving beneficiary access to prescription drugs.

Cara Barker received her Masters in Library and Information Sciences from the University of Washington in 2014.

She is a Research and Instruction Librarian at Western Carolina University.

Among the favorite sources of information nowadays is the internet.

You can find here diverse web resources and even electronic version of print publications such as books, journals, and other documents in Portable Document Format (PDF) that are highly accessible and convenient to use.

Among the 22.5 million beneficiaries enrolled in a Part D plan in 2006, approximately 89 percent enrolled in a plan without gap coverage, with the remainder enrolled in more generous plans with generic-only or generic and brand coverage during the gap (The Kaiser Family Foundation 2007).

Beneficiaries also could choose between Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD, 6 million in 2006) plans, which bundle drug, inpatient, and outpatient benefits; and stand-alone Prescription Drug Plans (PDP, 16.5 million in 2006).

There are 20 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

If you need to cite a standard webpage, a blog, a book that isn't published in print, or a forum post in APA format, you've come to the right place.

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    IntroductionMedicare beneficiaries often report that the process of. in choosing Medicare Part D prescription drug plans, more research is.…

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    Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week's Learning. Refer to the Pocket Guide to APA Style to ensure in-text citations and. For this assignment, address the following questions, doing further research as needed • How did various stakeholder groups influence the final outcome of Medicare Part D.…

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    The Medicare prescription drug program Part D has been designed to maximize choice for the. Drug Plan Choice Paper-and-Pencil TaskAppended.…

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    Nov 21, 2017. IntroductionMedicare beneficiaries often report that the process of. in choosing Medicare Part D prescription drug plans, more research is.…

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    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program started January 1, 2006. these federally established insurance-style plans, but they affect state health policy in 2-3 ways. The report includes data on enrollment by firm, state-level estimates of. and Public Affairs, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America.…

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