(1978) Words in context: A Japanese perspective on language and culture.
Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf.
"Languages, of course, are human creations, tools we invent and hone to suit our needs," Boroditsky continued.
It is necessary to clarify that the words “strong” and “weak” are not related to the strength of the scholarly argumentation, but rather to the degree to which language is assumed to influence our thought and behaviour.
By the 1990s, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis was left for dead, author Steven Pinker wrote.
"The cognitive revolution in psychology, which made the study of pure thought possible, and a number of studies showing meager effects of language on concepts, appeared to kill the concept in the 1990s...Language doesn't necessarily control humans' ability to reason or have an emotional response to something or some idea.For example, take the German word , which essentially is the feeling when you have the whole house to yourself because your parents or roommates are away.According to the strong version, the language we speak determines/constraints the way we think and view the real world.According to the weak version, the language does influence to some extent the way we think and view the real world, however, does not fully determine or constraint it.is the linguistic theory that the semantic structure of a language shapes or limits the ways in which a speaker forms conceptions of the world. The theory is named after the American anthropological linguist Edward Sapir (1884–1939) and his student Benjamin Whorf (1897–1941).It is also known as the The idea that a person's native language determines how he or she thinks was popular among behaviorists of the 1930s and on until cognitive psychology theories came about, beginning in the 1950s and increasing in influence in the 1960s.The fact of the matter is that the 'real world' is to a large extent unconsciously built upon the language habits of the group.No two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality.The agreement is, of course, an implicit and unstated one, but its terms are absolutely obligatory; we cannot talk at all except by subscribing to the organization and classification of data which the agreement decrees." -Whorf (193-14) While linguists generally agree that the weaker Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, also known as linguistic relativism, can be shown to be true to some extent, there are criticisms of the stronger form of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, also known as linguistic determinism.Introduction: Linguistic relativity is the notion that language can affect our thought processes, and is often referred to as the ‘Sapir-Whorf hypothesis’, after the two linguists who brought the idea into the spotlight.