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Read the course syllabus carefully--if citation style is not specified in the syllabus, ask your instructor investing time and effort in the formatting of your notes and bibliography.If you are allowed to choose a citation style, then once you have made your decision, be sure to maintain the same style throughout the paper.More information on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page. For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect.
In research and writing, a citation is a brief reference to a source of published information, providing sufficient bibliographic detail to enable the reader to locate a copy of the source (if copies exist).
A citation that does not provide the minimum amount of information is considered .
A citation for a document retrieved from an electronic database or online publication differs from a citation for an article published in print by the presence of an Internet address, usually the URL of the document at the time it was retrieved. Promising careers in academia have foundered on a scholar's failure to give credit where credit was due, and many colleges and universities in the United States, including WCSU, consider plagiarism grounds for disciplinary action.
Citations are also used in indexes and abstracting services, bibliographies, and electronic databases that specialize in compiling lists of sources to facilitate research (often in a specific discipline or field of study).
Offering a citation gives your readers and other scholars access to your information sources if they wish to follow-up, or find more information on your topic.
There are three main ways to uses sources in your research paper.APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation (for long titles just use the first few words). Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015) Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons) Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. Web page with author: In-text citation Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying (Kraiser, 2011). Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote.Unfortunately for the student, there is no single standardized format for citations.Different forms have evolved through usage in specific disciplines.Because these tools are published by different publishing companies and citation style is not standardized, the same work may be cited slightly differently in one index or bibliography than in another, as these two examples illustrate: , and the month of issue is abbreviated S/O for September/October.The publisher's conventions of abbreviation are usually stated at the beginning of each index volume, often in a list of "Abbreviations of Periodicals Indexed." Abbreviated titles are rarely used in electronic journal databases.The three most commonly used citation styles have been developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) for use in the humanities, the American Psychological Association (APA) for use in the social sciences, and in This lack of uniformity can make life difficult for the student.If you are writing a research paper for a particular course, the professor may require that a specific citation style be used for the assignment.Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. Retrieved from page with no date: In-text citation Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.). In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Author's name in parentheses: One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Retrieved from Web page with no author: In-text citation The term Nittany Lion was coined by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 ("All things Nittany," 2006). Reference entry American Psychological Association. Author's name part of narrative: Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.