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However, 35 less rigorous (correlational) studies suggest little or no relationship between homework and achievement for elementary school students.The average correlation between time spent on homework and achievement was substantial for secondary school students, but for elementary school students, it hovered around no relationship at all. Younger children have less developed study habits and are less able to tune out distractions at home.You always have the choice to experience our sites without personalized advertising based on your web browsing activity by visiting the DAA’s Consumer Choice page, the NAI's website, and/or the EU online choices page, from each of your browsers or devices.
A survey conducted by Met Life in 2007 found that 87% of parents saw that helping their child with homework was an opportunity for them to talk and spend time together.
More than three fourths (78%) did not think homework interfered with family time, and nearly as many (71%) thought that it was not a source of major stress. Pleasing a majority of parents regarding homework is about as good as they can hope for, even with a fair number of dissenters.
No strong evidence was found for an association between the homework-achievement link and the outcome measure (grades as opposed to standardized tests) or the subject matter (reading as opposed to math). Homework for junior high students appears to reach the point of diminishing returns after about 90 minutes a night.
On the basis of these results and others, the authors suggest future research. For high school students, the positive line continues to climb until between 90 minutes and 2.5 hours of homework a night, after which returns diminish (Cooper, 1989; Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006).
Beyond achievement, proponents of homework argue that it can have many other beneficial effects.
They claim it can help students develop good study habits so they are ready to grow as their cognitive capacities mature.Parents who feel their children are overburdened with homework are pitted against educators pressed to improve achievement test scores.According to two recent polls, however, the majority of parents remain satisfied with educators’ homework practices.Studies also suggest that young students who are struggling in school take more time to complete homework assignments simply because these assignments are more difficult for them. The National Parent Teacher Association and the National Education Association have a parents’ guide called Helping Your Child Get the Most Out of Homework. Many school district policies state that high school students should expect about 30 minutes of homework for each academic course they take (a bit more for honors or advanced placement courses).It states, “Most educators agree that for children in grades K–2, homework is more effective when it does not exceed 10–20 minutes each day; older children, in grades 3–6, can handle 30–60 minutes a day; in junior and senior high, the amount of homework will vary by subject.” In this article, the authors summarize research conducted in the United States since 1987 on the effects of homework. The authors found that all studies, regardless of type, had design flaws. These recommendations are consistent with the conclusions reached by our analysis.Common homework assignments may include required reading, a writing or typing project, mathematical exercises to be completed, information to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced. Generally speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children and may improve academic skills among older students, especially lower-achieving students.Homework also creates stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that students could spend outdoors, exercising, playing, working, sleeping, or in other activities.And it can give parents an opportunity to see what’s going on at school and let them express positive attitudes toward achievement.Opponents of homework counter that it can also have negative effects.Students assigned homework in second grade did better on the math tests; third and fourth graders did better on English skills and vocabulary tests; fifth graders on social studies tests; ninth through 12th graders on American history tests; and 12th graders on Shakespeare tests.Across five studies, the average student who did homework had a higher unit test score than the students not doing homework.