Labor organization commenced in Europe in the eighteenth century, first within an urban setting or within factories, solely to perform the social functions of exchange and insurance against illness.Tags: Curl Essay PrizeProblem Solution Essay OrganizationTolkien'S Essay On Fairy StoriesSample Market Research ProposalSchreiben Einer BachelorarbeitHow To Do An Essay In Apa FormatIntroduction For Research ProposalEssay On Shortage Of Drinking Water
Labor was dependent on the aristocrats, who were the landowners.
The feudal landlords granted protection and the right to use the land in exchange for taxes that included labor services, which is commonly called bondage.
It was through the struggle of the workers that the notion of a working class evolved, which was necessary to develop labor organization.
It took about a century for wage labor to become the norm in the nineteenth century as increasingly more workers were employed, replacing work on the land with work in the newly established factories.
Mechanization using the steam engine in the eighteenth century led to a higher productivity of factory work, which is commonly seen as the breakthrough in the process of industrialization.
Smith did provide the intellectual underpinning of the capitalist model in which the pursuit of self-interest under free competition leads to higher wealth for society.
The laborer as the member of a class—the working class—is also a recurring theme in sociology.
Two classical expositions come from the political philosopher Karl Marx (1818–1883), who offers a historical analysis of class struggle, and the sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920), who uses class more as a classification of stratification.
His influential work was even used in English courts to prohibit union activities, as the unionization of labor was seen as a hindrance to free competition.
Together, mechanization and specialization led to a certain alienation of the laborer toward the production process.