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The two strongest factors associated with smoking initiation in children and adolescents are parental smoking and parental nicotine dependence. Certain attitudes and beliefs related to cigarette smoking are also important predictors of smoking initiation,Adapted from Sockrider M, Rosen JB.
Richmond Center of Excellence website: www2org/richmondcenter/Emerging Alt Nicotine is a highly addictive substance and youth are particularly vulnerable to becoming addicts compared with adults.
In fact, studies have shown that teenagers develop nicotine addiction at much lower levels of consumption than adults, making smoking cessation potentially more difficult for this population. Many adolescents develop a higher tolerance to nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms (signalling dependence) after only days or weeks of exposure.Early nicotine dependence is an important factor in determining which individuals become regular smokers after experimentation. Interestingly, while some studies have demonstrated that adolescents usually experience less severe withdrawal symptoms than adults, withdrawal symptoms can appear sooner, sometimes after smoking only a few cigarettes.
There is adequate evidence to recommend that primary care clinicians provide interventions, including education and brief counselling, to prevent initiation of tobacco use in school-age children and adolescents. Counselling interventions can take many forms, including: Counselling can help counter or address an adolescent’s attitudes, beliefs and knowledge about smoking and its consequences, especially when they are mistaken or influenced by social or environmental factors, such as tobacco marketing.
Counselling can also strengthen the development of social competence and social skills, thus helping youth to decline cigarettes. Smoking rates and the state of smoking interventions for children and adolescents with chronic illness.
Information, effective strategies and opportunities for health care professionals to intervene and advocate for Canadian adolescents are discussed.
Key Words: 15 years of age (about 4.2 million people) were active smokers.The most recent data on tobacco use in Canadian provinces are based on national surveys conducted by Health Canada and Statistics Canada in 2013, which excluded the territories:It is also known from other sources that sexual minority youth (LGBTQ) and Aboriginal/Indigenous youth have smoking rates that are up to five times higher than other adolescents.While other forms of inhaled tobacco have been present for decades (Table 1), the recent increase in popularity of e-cigarettes is rapidly changing the way teenagers interact with tobacco products.The health risks of e-cigarettes compared with traditional cigarettes are not yet clearly known, but the potential for accidental nicotine poisoning in infants and young children is well established.Smokeless tobacco is often perceived as being ‘safer’ or less addictive than cigarettes by teenagers and adults alike, but a growing body of evidence contradicts such beliefs. Some new forms of smokeless tobacco look like candy or ‘breath-strips’, making them attractive to children.It is well known that tobacco use increases the risk for contracting a variety of diseases and health conditions, including lung, bladder, colorectal, esophageal, kidney, larynx, mouth, throat and other cancers, respiratory infections, diabetes and coronary heart disease.Risk levels increase steadily with the number of packs of cigarettes smoked, along with cumulative toxic effects on microvasculature that contribute to hair loss, skin wrinkling and the risk for erectile dysfunction. The negative effects of tobacco use during pregnancy are discussed in the CPS position statement “Use and misuse of tobacco among Aboriginal peoples”.Campaigns to inform the public of these risks, combined with smoking legislation regulating age of access and smoking in public places, have led to a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in Canada.Despite these efforts, thousands of young Canadians continue to take up smoking every year.Johanne Harvey, Nicholas Chadi; Canadian Paediatric Society, Adolescent Health Committee Paediatr Child Health 2016;21(4):209-14 Canada has witnessed a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in recent years.However, despite large numbers of campaigns and interventions, thousands of young Canadians continue to initiate cigarette smoking every year.Smoking kills more than 37,000 Canadians each year – six times more than vehicle collisions, suicides, homicides and AIDS combined.Also, with the increasing popularity of electronic (e-)cigarettes, nicotine dependence remains an important and timely topic.