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To what extent should we theorize criminal law and civil law as two quite separate categories of justice responses - or is it more appropriate to think of them as points on a continuum?This question is critical to any assessment of new developments in civil law and criminal law for settling disputes.The cost includes health care, court costs, probation and other direct costs associated with imprisonment.
Incarceration rates need to reduce and save over 800 billion dollars every year (Koenig, 2006).
The reforms need to make prisoners more productive while in incarceration to earn the government some hundreds of billions of dollars while serving their sentences.
The Democrats too agree that the country criminal justice reforms.
Many of the Politicians argue there are too many Americans in incarceration causing the taxpayers billions of dollars.
The question is too elusive, too complex to unravel.
It would require knowledge of too many unknowable facts.By contrast, the "third wave" was labelled by Cappelletti and Garth as the "access to justice" approach because of its aspirations to attack barriers more articulately and comprehensively; in their 1978 article in the Buffalo Law Review, they described the "third wave" as building upon the achievements of earlier reforms, but expanding both the goals and the means of achieving them: This "third wave" of reform includes but goes beyond advocacy, whether inside or outside of the courts, and whether through governmental or private advocates.Its focus is on the full panoply of institutions and devices, personnel and procedures, used to process, and even prevent, disputes in modern society (Cappelletti and Garth 1978: 223).Describing himself as "an academic lawyer who for many years has been a student of the workings of the legal system and in particular of the system's pathology," Zander examined recent changes in civil justice, criminal justice, and the protection of human rights in the United Kingdom.Although his lectures focused on the legal system and the courts rather than on more fundamental ideas of "justice," he offered a trenchant critique of the new The truth is that the  reforms spring not from a desire to improve access to justice but from the Treasury's need to control the budget. Zander's comments reveal the complex social, political and legal contexts within which current discussions about justice occur.[The "third wave" encourages experimentation with a wide range of reforms,] including changes in forms of procedure, changes in the structure of courts or the creation of new courts, the use of lay persons and paraprofessionals both on the bench and in the bar, modifications in the substantive law designed to avoid disputes or to facilitate their resolution, and the use of private or informal dispute resolution mechanisms (Cappelletti and Garth 1978: 225).Although the focus of the Florence Access-to-Justice Project was civil justice, it is possible to identify similar "waves" of developments in the criminal justice context. In such a context, recent developments in restorative justice for criminal law matters appear to be "third wave" reforms: efforts to use the "full panoply of institutions, devices, personnel and procedures" and experimentation with a wide range of reforms. Moreover, beyond criminal justice, it has been suggested that there is "the possibility of using the substance of conflict as a means of exploring options and establishing responses that are not only acceptable to all parties but develop and strengthen relationships among those involved" in other kinds of conflict (Law Commission of Canada 1999: 40). From this perspective, new developments in restorative justice in the criminal law context appear linked to "transformative justice" - processes which take account of broader concerns, including traditional civil law matters.The United States introduced criminal justice reform with the objective of correcting errors made during criminal justice processes.The goals of the reforms are to reduce the number of incarcerated prisoners and prison sentences.There are an estimated 2.2 million inmates in the US (Koenig, 2006).The vast number of people in prisons costs the nation an estimated 50, 000 dollars per inmate annually.