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Drawing on proficiency and cognitive models from previous studies, Schoonen et al.() also recognized that different components of knowledge and skills are fundamentally relevant to writer’s performance.Recent research, however, have focused not only on composing processes but also on the factors in the writers’ long term memory, (which Chenoweth & Hayes ) recognized that writing performance is dependent on the interplay of several factors such as L1 writing ability, L2 proficiency, L2 metaknowledge, and prior L2 writing experience/education.
Most of the early studies on cognitive process framework focused on the processes while composing.
Additionally, good writers review and revise their texts on high level-elements of writing such as concerns about style, audience, and tone.
Castro () explained that expert writers had more pre-writing activities, more generated ideas, more organizational decisions, more retrieved ideas, and more evaluations before writing down their notes than did the novice writers.
Exploring the relative contribution of linguistic knowledge (grammar, vocabulary and orthography) and metacognitive knowledge at the writer’s resource level and the speed of processing at the writer’s process level to writing proficiency across L1 and L1, they collected data from 281 grade 8 students using writing tasks to measure L1 and L2 proficiency; tests on grammar, vocabulary, orthography, and metaknowledge to assess the writer’s resources in the memory; and speed of lexical retrieval and sentence building to measure the writers’ fluency in accessing linguistic knowledge.
Their study claimed that L2 linguistic tests highly correlated with L2 writing proficiency than L1 linguistic tests with L1 writing proficiency did.