In such cases, reviewers and/or committee members will have difficulty recognizing the problem.
A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded.
The review of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem.
It should establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer is knowledgeable about the area (Wiersma, 1995, p. Avoid statements that imply that little has been done in the area or that what has been done is too extensive to permit easy summary.
The operational null is generally the preferred form of hypothesis-writing.a form that states the hypothesis you will accept if the null hypothesis is rejected, stated in terms of theoretical constructs.
In other words, this is usually what you hope the results will show.Statements of this sort are usually taken as indications that the writer is not really familiar with the literature.In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point.For example, There is no relationship between the number of hours nontraditional-aged college women use the student union and their persistence at the college after their freshman year.Or, There is no difference between the mean grade point averages achieved by students in the upper and lower quartiles of the distribution of the Self-regulated Inventory.Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry that undergirds the study.This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention.In quantitative studies, one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for a study. One thus begins the study advancing a theory, collects data to test it, and reflects on whether the theory was confirmed or disconfirmed by the results in the study.The theory becomes a framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypotheses for the data collection procedure (Creswell, 1994, pp. In qualitative inquiry, the use of theory and of a line of inquiry depends on the nature of the investigation.Some committee Chairs prefer a separate section to this end.When defining terms, make a judicious choice between using descriptive or operational definitions.