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The Roman system of law and Roman administration became very popular.
Since a state cannot function under the law unless it is recognised by the members of the community of nations, such diplomatic recognition is often considered another property of the state.
Further, most political theorists emphasise on the purpose or end as an important element of the state.
He defined the state as “a community of persons, more or less numerous; permanently occupying a definite territory, independent of external control, and possessing an organised government, to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.” Although the scholars differ among themselves as to the definition of the state, they are at one with regard to the characteristics of the state.
Authorities agree on certain essential properties of a state.
In that tribal organisation the rights of the individuals were based on kinship.
Allegiance to the state had nothing to do with the rulers or the territories.
These are population, territory, government and sovereignty.
The last mentioned element clothes the government with a monopoly of force for the preservation of peace and order and having a plentitude of authority within the state, independent of external control except that of international law.
If the Greek city states were known for liberty, democracy and local independence, the Roman empire earned eminence for unity, order and universal law.
While Greece had democracy without unity, Rome had unity minus democracy.