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They were so enamored of reason that they did not realize that Swift was metamorphosing a virtue into a vice.In Book IV, Gulliver has come to idealize the horses. Literally, of course, we know they are not, but figuratively they seem an ideal for humans — until Swift exposes them as dull, unfeeling creatures, thoroughly unhuman.
They take no pleasure in sex, nor do they ever overflow with either joy or melancholy. Gulliver's Travels was the work of a writer who had been using satire as his medium for over a quarter of a century.
His life was one of continual disappointment, and satire was his complaint and his defense — against his enemies and against humankind.
In an earlier satire (A Modest Proposal), he had proposed that the very poor in Ireland sell their children to the English as gourmet food. Mankind, as he has a Brobdingnagian remark, is "the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that Nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." Swift also inserted subtly hidden puns into some of his name-calling techniques.
The island of Laputa, the island of pseudo-science, is literally (in Spanish) the land of "the whore." Science, which learned people of his generation were venerating as a goddess, Swift labeled a whore, and devoted a whole hook to illustrating the ridiculous behavior of her converts. Gulliver, leaving the Houyhnhnms, says that he "took a second leave of my master, but as I was going to prostrate myself to kiss his hoof, he did me the honor to raise it gently to my mouth." Swift was indeed so thorough a satirist that many of his early readers misread the section on the Houyhnhnms.
He also attempts to show the king gunpowder as he was so proud of it.
Swift here finds the perfect opportunity to once again make the reader think about how bad the time we live in is.People, he believed, were generally ridiculous and petty, greedy and proud; they were blind to the "ideal of the mean." This ideal of the mean was present in one of Swift's first major satires, The Battle of the Books (1697).There, Swift took the side of the Ancients, but he showed their views to be ultimately as distorted as those of their adversaries, the Moderns.Swift was roasting people, and they were eager for the banquet.Swift himself admitted to wanting to "vex" the world with his satire, and it is certainly in his tone, more than anything else, that one most feels his intentions.For the first part of his visit Gulliver is on a floating island the inhabitants of this island satirise pure intellectualism and the concept of a floating island also represented superiority.He spends the other half on the ground in a scientific academy.In Gulliver's last adventure, Swift again pointed to the ideal of the mean by positioning Gulliver between symbols of sterile reason and symbols of gross sensuality.To Swift, Man is a mixture of sense and nonsense; he had accomplished much but had fallen far short of what he could have been and what he could have done.He uses war and fighting this time mentioning things like Europe has 'sunk down ships, with a thousand men in each.' The words that swift uses make the reader think about the wars that have previously happened and how our people have massacred thousands of people.Gulliver told the King many stories and the king summarised Europe by saying that we are 'the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth.' Gulliver now goes on to visit the island of Laputa.