Each of the five conferences, and each edited volume that arose from it, was devoted to an area of natural science and its interaction with religion, including quantum cosmology (1992, Russell et al. 1995), evolutionary and molecular biology (1996, Russell et al. The legal battles (e.g., the Kitzmiller versus Dover trial in 2005) and lobbying surrounding the teaching of evolution and creationism in American schools suggest that religion and science conflict.
Pope John Paul II (1996) affirmed evolutionary theory in his message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, but rejected it for the human soul, which he saw as the result of a separate, special creation.
The Church of England publicly endorsed evolutionary theory (e.g., M.
Section 3 discusses contemporary topics of scientific inquiry in which science and religion intersect, focusing on creation, divine action, and human origins.
Section 4 concludes by looking at a few future directions of the study of science and religion.
Torrance (1969) who challenged the prevailing view that science and religion were either at war or indifferent to each other.
Barbour’s the first specialist journal on science and religion, was also founded in 1966.While the early study of science and religion focused on methodological issues, authors from the late 1980s to the 2000s developed contextual approaches, including detailed historical examinations of the relationship between science and religion (e.g., Brooke 1991).Peter Harrison (1998) challenged the warfare model by arguing that Protestant theological conceptions of nature and humanity helped to give rise to science in the seventeenth century.The term “religion” obtained its considerably broader current meaning through the works of early anthropologists, such as E. Tylor (1871), who systematically used the term for religions across the world.The term “science” as it is currently used also became common only in the nineteenth century.Section 1 outlines the scope of both fields, and how they are related.Section 2 looks at the relationship between science and religion in three religious traditions, Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism.It studies historical and contemporary interactions between these fields, and provides philosophical analyses of how they interrelate.This entry provides an overview of the topics and discussions in science and religion.It had contributors from philosophy and theology (e.g., Nancey Murphy) and the sciences (e.g., Francisco Ayala).The aim of these conferences was to understand divine action in the light of contemporary sciences. 2008 for a book-length summary of the findings of this project.) In the contemporary public sphere, the most prominent interaction between science and religion concerns evolutionary theory and creationism/Intelligent Design.