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Another form of domestic violence is psychological abuse.An abuser will use humiliation and degradation as a weapon.
Sex differences in current human mating strategies may be explained as having been shaped by the strategies that created reproductive success among human ancestors.
A number of studies have shown that young adult males are more interested in partner variety, less interested in committed long-term relationships, and more willing to engage in impersonal sex than are young adult females (Clark and Hatfield, 1989; Symons and Ellis, 1989; Clark, 1990; Landolt et al., 1995).
A vital part of understanding a social problem, and a precursor to preventing it, is an understanding of what causes it.
Research on the causes of violence against women has consisted of two lines of inquiry: examination of the characteristics that influence the behavior of offenders and consideration of whether some women have a heightened vulnerability to victimization.
Many theorists and researchers have sought to answer the question, "Why does this particular man batter or sexually assault? Among them have been biologic factors such as androgenic hormonal influences; evolutionary theo- ries; intrapsychic explanations focused on mental disorder or personality traits and profiles; social learning models that highlight the socialization experiences that shape individual men to be violent; social information processing theory concerning the cognitive processes that offenders engage in before, during, and after violence; sociocultural analyses aimed at understanding the structural features of society at the level of the dyad, family, peer group, school, religion, media, and state that encourage male violence and maintain women as a vulnerable class of potential victims; and feminist explanations stressing the gendered nature of violence against women and its roots in patriarchal social systems.
Essay Domestic Violence Against Women
Recently, researchers armed with multivariate statistical analysis have tested complex models of violence with multiple factors to explain battering (Mc Kenry et al., 1995) and to model the common roots of verbal, physical, and sexual coercion toward women (Malamuth et al., 1995)."Each year an estimated 2 million to 4 million woman in the Untied States are abused by their male partners.Many of them are severely physically assaulted, and thousands are killed" ( Domestic abuse appears not only with violence, but it is very prevalent in psychological abuse.Also new are integrative metatheories of intimate violence that consider the impact of historical, sociocultural, and social factors on people, including the processes whereby social influences are transmitted to and represented within individual psychological functioning, including cognition and motivation (White, in press).Many of the theories about the causes of perpetrating violence against women are drawn from the literature on aggression and general violence.Women are battered by those in which they thought that they could place their trust in. frightening fact that domestic abusers are always intimate with their victims, at one time or another. Woman have been convinced by the abuser that the violence in all their fault.Also, many woman have lost their self esteem and believe all of the humiliating words that have they heard from the abuser.Men will make their victims feel as if they are worthless.They also leave their victims in a state of helplessness, such as leaving them without money, transportation or any type of communication, such as a telephone. Currently, domestic violence is widespread, and not all cases are reported. Shame seems to play a large part in why most cases are not reported.Both the research on general violence and that on violence against women suggest that violence arises from interactions among individual biological and psychosocial factors and social processes (e.g., Reiss and Roth, 1993), but it is not known how much overlap there is in the development of violent behavior against women and other violent behavior.Studies of male batterers have found that some batterers confine their violent behavior to their intimates but others are violent in general (Fagan et al., 1983; Cadsky and Crawford, 1988; Shields et al., 1988; Saunders, 1992; Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart, 1994).