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With the advent of new therapies to treat HIV infection and the recommendation to institute therapy as soon as possible (but no later than 72 hours) after exposure,(5) rapid assays may be the most appropriate for testing the source patient after exposure (eg, needlestick injuries).More recently, tests have been developed using fluids that can be obtained conveniently outside the clinical laboratory.Regardless of the particular screening test used, serum or plasma samples first are tested (screened) using a test with high sensitivity, most often an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), "rapid test," or "simple method" (described below).
Therefore, along with the testing process, there is the requirement for an extraordinary and dedicated quality assurance program.(1) Regardless of the results, because laboratory tests are not perfect, they are meant to be a supplement for clinical diagnosis.
The use of such antigens allows HIV screening tests to possess both sensitivity (to detect infection) and specificity (to detect noninfection).
In the United States, screening tests for HIV must be licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), regardless of whether they are used for screening blood, diagnosis, or monitoring disease.
Besides the traditional fermentation, biotechnological tools have expanded to employ more advanced sciences, such as genetic engineering, applied immunology, and medicinal therapies and diagnostic.
Among these tools, a variety of enzymes are indispensable—they may appear as hammers and chisels to help accomplish molecular biology experiments, or they may act as efficient micro-reactors in industrial production.