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When Sorenson showed Ekman's photographs to Fore subjects and asked them to name an emotion directly from the appearance of the face, "many displayed uncertainty, hesitation and confusion.Some were completely tongue-tied; others trembled and perspired profusely or looked wildly about." A table providing the results of this interrogation shows that the Fore subjects who had had the least contact with Westerners gave many "wrong" responses.
Contempt Expression Relativity Thesis English 100 Essay
The same was true for the "sadness" face. That Ekman's method produced more positive results may be due to the fact that it was a "forced choice" test. Some psychologists note that the faces in Ekman's photographs do not show spontaneous, real-life emotions, but rather are posed.Finally, I consider how and why emotional change takes place, urging that the history of emotions be integrated into other sorts of histories-social, political, and intellectual.Today, a significant proportion of the psychological literature is dominated by the work of Paul Ekman and his associates on the universal facial expressions of emotion. Ekman's original hypothesis, "that particular facial behaviors are universally associated with particular emotions," has been reaffirmed in numerous studies, often using sets of photographs of faces prepared by Ekman. The "particular emotions" that Ekman identified-happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise, anger, and fear-are now generally assumed to be the "basic emotions" common to all human beings.They, too, have tended to work within Ekman's paradigm.Elizabeth Carter and Kevin Pelphrey, for example, recently published a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI) to assess brain activation when subjects recognized happy and angry faces. They found that angry faces activated expected areas of the brain (the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus) as well as unanticipated areas (the lateral fusiform gyrus, for example), while happy faces activated other brain regions.Rather, their work has led above all to fine micro-studies of cultures whose emotions differ from our own.Catherine Lutz's book on the Ifaluk (inhabitants of an atoll in the Caroline Islands of Micronesia) is a good example of this."Normal" people are expected not only to express these emotions as they are expressed in Ekman's photographs but also to correctly see and interpret these emotions on the faces of others.Thus, some psychologists associate mental abnormalities with an individual's failure to correctly identify emotions from Ekman's prototypes. In the last ten years or so, neurobiologists and geneticists have added their techniques to such studies.The suggestion that free exchange of information was ‘cheating' was quite incomprehensible to the Fore and alien to their view of language as an element of cooperative interaction among close associates."  Reviewing the testing situation, psychologist James A.Russell pointed out that the Fore people may have thought that the faces were responding to situations, not expressing emotions. In that case, the experiment was not particularly about emotions.