The utility of accountability measures, such as sanctions or force, and under what conditions, is also debatable.
At times, to secure an end to violent conflict, negotiators choose not to hold human rights violators accountable.
War crimes tribunals—the International Criminal Court (ICC), tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and hybrid courts in Sierra Leone and Cambodia—also contribute to the development and enforcement of standards.
All seek to raise political will and public consciousness, assess human-rights-related conduct of states and warring parties, and offer technical advice to states on improving human rights. Generally, when they are effective, they change states' conduct by publicizing abuses rather than by providing technical advice or applying punitive measures.
Many experts credit intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) for advances—particularly in civil and political rights.
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These scholars cite the creation of an assortment of secretariats, administrative support, and expert personnel to institutionalize and implement human rights norms.
Particularly, since the United Nations (UN) was established in 1945, world leaders have cooperated to codify human rights in a universally recognized regime of treaties, institutions, and norms. Governments are striving to promote human rights domestically and abroad, and are partnering with multilateral institutions to do so.
A particularly dynamic and decentralized network of civil-society actors is also involved in the effort.
Overall, the United Nations (UN) remains the central global institution for developing international norms and legitimizing efforts to implement them, but the number of actors involved has grown exponentially.
The primary mechanisms include UNSC action, the UN Human Rights Council(UNHRC), committees of elected experts, various rapporteurs, special representatives, and working groups.