Meanwhile, the main advocate of a link between sugar and heart disease, John Yudkin, was himself funded by the dairy and egg industries.In a piece for Slate, Jones and Oppenheimer criticized the critics of the sugar industry for their “highly selective and profoundly flawed interpretation of this history.” Who is right? To answer this question, we need a more nuanced understanding of the many ways that industry can—and does—influence science.Tags: Problems In Writing Academic EssayAp Evolution EssaysWriting A Critical EssayBusiness Plan For An Established BusinessJunior Research Paper TopicsShort Essays On Rainy Season
There was no fraud involved in this technique, and the research described in the pamphlets was often not funded by or otherwise linked to the tobacco industry.
In this case, Big Tobacco did not need to influence scientists to influence beliefs about what the science showed.
Holman and Bruner illustrate this point with a stark example.
Heart arrhythmias often precede heart attacks, so in the 1970s researchers began testing drugs intended to suppress arrhythmia. But while some researchers ran studies testing whether the drugs actually reduced mortality, others simply tested whether the drugs reduced arrhythmia.
A media storm followed, with widespread coverage of this “sugar conspiracy.” Marion Nestle, professor of nutrition from New York University, described the findings as “appalling.” Many quickly concluded that Big Sugar had shifted the course of nutrition science, with serious public health consequences.
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But just two years later, historians David Merritt Jones and Gerald M.
The key to this strategy is to bias the data seen by the public.
The data may be real, independently generated, and of very high quality, but if the people who use that data to make decisions see only a misleading fraction of what has been found, their beliefs are more likely to be false.
In fact, they often get the policy results they want without committing fraud—and often they don’t even have to subvert the norms of scientific practice to do so.
One technique they use to pull this off is what we have called selective sharing.