Selection of an anticonvulsant medication depends on an accurate diagnosis of the epileptic syndrome.
Although some anticonvulsants (eg, lamotrigine, topiramate, valproic acid, zonisamide) have multiple mechanisms of action, and some (eg, phenytoin, carbamazepine, ethosuximide) have only one known mechanism of action, anticonvulsant agents can be divided into large groups based on their mechanisms, as follows: The 2 major kinds of brain surgery for epilepsy are palliative and potentially curative.
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The use of a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) for palliative therapy in patients with intractable atonic seizures has reduced the need for anterior callosotomy.
Lobectomy and lesionectomy are among several possible curative surgeries.
Epilepsy is defined as a brain disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition.
The clinical signs and symptoms of seizures depend on the location of the epileptic discharges in the cerebral cortex and the extent and pattern of the propagation of the epileptic discharge in the brain.
As proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) in 2005, epilepsy is defined as a brain disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition.
Traditionally, the diagnosis of epilepsy requires the occurrence of at least 2 unprovoked seizures.